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Bitka pri Trafalgare

11. prosince 2006 v 12:27 | Th()mas |  Historické bitky
Nie každá krajina mala takú strategickú výhodu ako Británia. Tou výhodou bol kanál La manche. Británia disponovala vojenským námorníctvom dosť silným na ustráženie tohto kanálu a aby sa mohla cítiť istá , že žiadna mocnosť na zemi ju nemôže ohroziť účinnou inváziou. Francúzke víťazstvo v roku 1805 nad Britániou by odstránilo poslednú väčšiu prekážku francúzskej hegemónie v Európe. toto doplnené Víťazstvom Napoleona Pri Slavkove by znamenalo vrchol francúzskej moci a predčasný koniec hospodárskej a imperiálnej prevahy Británie 19 storočia. Toto nebezpečie bolo zažehnané vďaka víťazstvu lorda Nelsona pri Trafalgare.
Napoleonove plány na inváziu boli veľmi realistické a mali veľké šance na úspech. Medzi Dunkerque a La Havrem zhromaždil flotilu lodí, v Boulogni utáboril pozemné vojsko a čakal na svoju flotilu, aby mu na 24 hodín zaistila kontrolu nad Kanálom, ktoré by mu bohato stačili k jeho prekročeniu. Vedel, že jeho skúsení vojaci by boli oveľa viac lepší než anglická domobrana, pokiaľ by sa mu podarilo vylodiť. Angličania mali námorné základne v Toulone, Breste, Rocheforte, Cádize a Cartagene, kde kotvili francúzske lode vedľa svojich španielskych spojencov v smrteľnom zovretí. Iba keby sa podarilo francúzskej flotile preraziť obkľúčenie, bolo by možné dostať sa do Bologne a pomôcť Napoleonovým výsadkovým jednotkám uskutočniť ich krátku, ale zásadnú cestu. 30 marca 1805 Napoleonove fregaty hlásili, že Villeneuve (veliteľ francúzskej flotily) prelomil blokádu Toulonu, a Nelson si myslel, že budú smerovať do východného Stredomoria. Mýlil sa. Francúzi totiž preplávali Gibraltárskym prielivom a smerovali na západoindické ostrovy. Nelson sa vydal flotilu prenasledovať, ale bol ešte dosť ďaleko keď sa Vilneuve zastavil na Martiniku a potom sa vydal späť. Nelson poslal po rýchlo plávajúcej lodi správu, že mu Villneuve ušiel. Admiralita v Anglicku vydala preto rozkaz britským eskadrám pri Breste a Rocheforte, aby sa spojili a bránili Kanál pred Vilneuvom. výsledkom bolo, že 22. júna viedol Robert Calder nočnú bitku s Villneuvom pri myse Finisterre. Bitka skončila nerozhodne, ale stačila, aby Vilneuve opustil svoj plán preniknúť do kanálu. Namiesto toho sa vydal smerom na Cadíz. Keď sa Napoleon dozvedel, že Vilneuve nie je v Breste ale v Španielsku tak sa rozhneval, že poslal admirála Rosillyho, aby Villneuva nahradil. Keď sa to Villneuve dozvedel, bolo mu jasné že jeho kariéra skončí s hanbou ak sa mu niečo nepodarí vykonať.
Preto prijal bitku pri Trafalgare, aj keď vedel, že ma malú šancu na úspech.

19 októbra 1805 sa Briti blížili k Francúzsko -španielskej flotile 33 bojových lodí plávajúcich južne od Cádizu, pričom Nelson viedol náveternou líniou 12 lodí a Colingwood viedol na záveternej línii 15 lodí. Aj keď mal Vilneuve početnú prevahu v lodiach aj v delách, Briti vynikali velením a morálkou. Britská flotila postupovala v dvoch prúdoch vedenými admirálmi. Plánovala preniknúť francúzsko-španielskou líniou na dvoch miestach a zaujať nepriateľa bojom na krátku vzdialenosť, aby mu znemožnila únik. Nelson chcel mať istotu, že bitka bude dobojovaná až do konca, a preto bol pripravený zmieriť sa na začiatku zo zničením alebo poškodením niekoľkých lodí, aby sa priblížil natoľko blízko, aby jeho bočné delá zničili nepriateľa.
Aj samotný Nelson bol zasiahnutý ostrekovačom. vedel, že jeho zranenie je smrteľné a tak namiesto neho prevzal vedenie bitky Colingwood a v nasledujúcej hodine bolo zničených ďalších 9 nepriateľských lodí.

Bitka pri Trafalgare bola na konci. To čo vyzeralo ako bitka medzi flotilami rovnakej sily a veľkosti skončilo masakrom. 4408 mužov bolo mŕtvych a 2250 zranených. Napoleonova námorná moc bola naveky zlomená a jeho nádeje na porážku Británie skončili.
 

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